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  • 百利天下出国考试 > 托福 > 托福机经 > 2019年7月7日托福考试阅读机经预测

    [百利机经] 2019年7月7日托福考试阅读机经预测

    信息来源: 百利天下出国考试 发布时间:2019-06-24 直达下载地址

    摘要:2019年7月7日托福考试阅读机经预测,内含近年托福阅读真题,是2019年旧题重考重点,希望对各位考生的备考有帮助。

    关键词:2019年7月7日托福考试阅读机经预测,2019年7月7日托福考试机经预测
    机经内容:

      今天给大家带来的是2019年7月7日托福考试阅读机经预测,包括阅读真题预测及练习、阅读高频词汇等,能够突破托福考试中的疑难问题。本文是2019年7月7日托福考试阅读机经预测,真题内容较多,帮助考生逐一攻克。

      2019年7月7日托福考试阅读机经预测(部分内容展示):

      Urban Development in the United States During the Nineteenth Century

      •P1: Urbanized societies, in which a high proportion of the population lives in P cities, developed only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The process of urbanization has moved rapidly in the entire world since 1800, and the peak is not yet in sight. In the United States, early New England towns, formally disposed along wide elm-lined central roadways or commons, exhibit a conscious planning. In discussing the growth of cities in the United States in the nineteenth century, one cannot really use the term "urban planning", as it suggests modern concerns for spatial and service organization which, in most instances, did not exist before the planning revolution called the City Beautiful Movement that began in the 1890s. While there certainly were urban areas that were "planned” in the comprehensive contemporary sense of the word before that date, most notably Washington, D.C., these were the exception. Most “planned" in the nineteenth century was limited to areas much smaller than a city and was closely associated with developers trying to make a profit from a piece of land.

      •P2: Three forces particularly affected the configuration of urban and suburban areas in the nineteenth century: economics, transportation technology, and demographics. Added to these was the characteristic American preference for independent living, including separate neighborhoods for themselves by building mansions on large plots of land at the edges of the cities or in the countryside. Economic development stemmed from the Industrial Revolution of the 19th centuries transformed urban life and gave people higher expectations for improving their standard of living. The increased number of jobs, along with technological innovations in transportation and housing construction, encouraged migration to cities. People no longer had to live within walking distance their jobs. Commuting into the city to work became easier and cheaper with constant transportation system improvements and increased ridership.

      •P3: Demographic patterns also accounted for the urbanization. Urban populations grew steadily due to rural immigrants gravitated to the cheap housing and to the promise of work in or near the center of cities or around factories and emigration from around the globe. As the 19th century drew to a close, the rapid development of cities served as both a uniting and dividing factor in American social, economic, and political life. Cities attracted a rich cross-section of the world's population, creating a various, metropolitan atmosphere. At the same time, cities forced people from entirely different backgrounds to live and work together in close proximity for the first time, which contributed to diverse urban problems.

      •P4: Many nineteenth-century urban problems continue to plague cities today, especially those associated with sanitation and mega-fires resulted from lack of planning and regulation. The growth of cities outpaced the ability of local governments to extend clean water, garbage collection, and sewage systems into poorer areas, so conditions in cities deteriorated. Sanitary sewers at that time failed to stop the spread of typhoid, increased its infection rates downstream of sewer outlets, and the miasmatic gasses they were designed to mitigate turned out to not exist. It was not until the 1860s that any serious, concerted effort was made to develop proper systems for water delivery and sewage removal, which caused water contamination and the spread of disease by rodents and insects. During the 19th century, the United States was afflicted with many urban conflagrations and wildfires as tactical firefighting and prevention practices were underdeveloped. Construction with combustible materials coupled with close placement of buildings and the use of open flames in heating, cooking, and lighting meant that the potential for raging fires was ever present.

      • P5: Cities in the late 19th century were large, compacted, and impersonal places devoted to making money. Typically, development was both unplanned and unrestricted, with landowners making all choices of lot size, services, and street arrangement based only on their individual needs in the marketplace. Not surprisingly, corruption was rampant in city government and city services, in the construction industry, and among landlords and employers. High rents, low wages, and poor services produced misery in the midst of abrupt economic growth.

      题目:

      1. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

      A. Understanding the growth of cities in nineteenth-century America requires recognizing how the City Beautiful Movement of the 1890s changed "urban planning.

      B. For the most part, there was no "urban planning,” as that term is understood today, before the beginning of the City Beautiful Movement in the 1890s.

      C. Concerns for spatial and service organization had little impact on the growth of cities before the 1890s when the City Beautiful Movement began.

      D. The growth of cities in nineteenth-century America resulted in the creation of the City Beautiful Movement in the 1890s and the rise of the term “urban planning.”

      2. According to paragraph 1, Washington, D.C. was

      A. A a typical nineteenth-century American city

      B. B a city that was planned in separate sections by land developers

      C. C the very first city in America to be described as “planned”

      D. D one of the few cases of true urban planning in America before the 1890s

      3. Select the TWO answer choices that, according to the paragraph 1, best describe most urban plans in the nineteenth century. To receive credit, you must select TWO answers.

      A. They were created to profit land developers.

      B. They typically affected only part of a city rather than the whole city.

      C. Their success sometimes directly led to other necessary improvements in cities.

      D. They were carefully reviewed by city governments.

      4. In paragraph 2, the author mentions the characteristic American preference for independent living to

      A. identify one of the factors that affected the configuration of urban and suburban areas in America in the nineteenth century

      B. explain which of the three forces mentioned—economics, transportation technology, and demographics—was the most important in shaping American cities and suburbs

      C. explain how decisions were made in American nineteenth-century cities and suburbs about locations for businesses and factories

      D. provide evidence showing that industrial growth was able to generate higher incomes for much of the population in nineteenth-century cities and suburbs in America

      5. According to paragraph 2, what is one reason that transportation costs in American cities decreased during the nineteenth century?

      A. The number of people using transportation increased.

      B. The cost of energy such as electricity decreased.

      C. Commuters and shoppers began living closer to their destinations.

      D. Transportation suppliers had to compete for riders.

      6. The word “steadily” in the passage is closest in meaning to

      A. significantly

      B. rapidly

      C. continuously

      D. unevenly

      7. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 3 about changes in the demographics of cities during the nineteenth century?

      A. The reason most people left the city was to take jobs in the country.

      B. The middle class population increased.

      C. The population became more ethnically diverse.

      D. The working class population tended to live in the oldest housing.
      以上是2019年7月7日托福考试阅读机经预测的部分内容,点击下载2019年7月7日托福考试机经完整内容,获取托福考试真题,让你熟悉和熟练掌握托福考试题目。本次机经真题较多,希望考生可以早做准备,从而预留出更多的时间来备考。

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    2019年7月7日托福阅读机经之真题预测及练习.pdf 2019年7月7日托福阅读机经之高频词汇.pdf
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